The stylish and distinctive all-new Ford Kuga SUV – Ford’s most electrified vehicle ever – introduces sleek new exterior design with premium proportions for improved roominess and comfort.
The sophisticated and stylish all-new Kuga Titanium, sporty Kuga ST‑Line and upscale Kuga Vignale are offered with an advanced range of hybrid powertrains that delivers best-in-class fuel efficiency with the range average improved by up to 28 per cent like-for-like compared with the outgoing model.
The comprehensive Kuga powertrain line-up includes Kuga Plug-In Hybrid, Kuga EcoBlue Hybrid (mild hybrid) and Kuga Hybrid (full hybrid) variants, alongside Ford’s 2.0-litre EcoBlue diesel, 1.5‑litre EcoBlue diesel and 1.5‑litre EcoBoost petrol engines, and intelligent eight-speed automatic transmission.
The all-new Kuga offers even more intuitive comfort and driver assistance features, including the FordPass Connect modem that helps owners better manage their Kuga Plug-In Hybrid with new electrified vehicle features for the FordPass app. Further sophisticated technologies include a wireless charging pad and Ford’s SYNC 3 infotainment system1 supported by an 8‑inch central touchscreen. A premium B&O Sound System produces a high-quality audio experience, while a new industry-first, free-form, 12.3-inch LCD instrument cluster with “true colour” is more informative, intuitive and easier to read.
New Stop & Go, Speed Sign Recognition and Lane Centring technologies help drivers negotiate stop-start and highway traffic with greater confidence than ever before, while predictive curve light and sign-based light help drivers see more clearly in the dark. Head-up display technology helps drivers to keep their eyes on the road ahead, and Active Park Assist 2 enables fully automated parking manoeuvres at the push of a button.
Best-in-class rear legroom and luggage space can be realised using sliding second row seats, able to easily move forward or rearward up to 150 mm.
Kuga is Ford’s best-selling SUV in Europe and the No. 3 best-selling Ford vehicle in the region after the Fiesta and Focus. Customers purchased 161,400 Kuga vehicles in 2019, an increase of almost 5 per cent, contributing to a Ford SUV sales increase of more than 6 per cent last year.
“The all-new Kuga is our best example yet of Ford’s human-centric design approach; developed in close collaboration with SUV customers to deliver distinctive style, unprecedented powertrain choice, premium comfort and advanced technologies that make life easier for owners inside and outside of the car,” said Stuart Rowley, president, Ford of Europe.
Designed by our customers
The all-new Kuga is based on Ford’s new global front-wheel drive flexible architecture that supports improved aerodynamics for better fuel efficiency and helps reduce Kuga’s weight versus outgoing models by up to 80 kg when comparing equivalent powertrain variants.
In addition, the new architecture is designed to enhance crash performance and contributes to Kuga’s Euro NCAP 5-star safety rating;2 delivers 10 per cent more torsional stiffness for improved driving dynamics; and creates more interior space for Ford’s mid-size models while still enabling expressive and dynamic design.
The all-new Kuga introduces distinctive new exterior design that is more sculpted and simplified with premium proportions. A streamlined silhouette incorporates a longer wheelbase that creates a larger footprint on the road benefitting ride and stability; a longer bonnet; further reclined rear windshield angle; and lower roofline. The result is a more energetic, nimble and capable appearance than ever before.
A tailored spectrum of choice includes differentiating executions for Kuga Vignale, ST-Line and Titanium variants, each with a unique character to reflect customers’ personalities. With contemporary and confident styling, Kuga Titanium is indicative of the high specification and quality that will be offered to customers. Highlights include a sporty front skid plate and rear diffuser, body-coloured mirrors, side cladding and door handles, LED daytime running lights and standard 17-inch, or optional 19-inch alloy wheels.3
The upscale Kuga Vignale conveys exclusive specification and meticulous craftsmanship through bespoke Vignale ornamentation including satin aluminium finishes for the roof rails, bumpers and rocker inserts, as well as unique, elegant front and rear bumper designs. The exterior also features signature Vignale chrome finished front mesh grille and twin tailpipes, alongside standard 18-inch, and optional 19-inch or 20-inch alloy wheels. Windsor leather seats with an exclusive Vignale hexagon design, a leather-wrapped heated steering wheel and velour floor mats further enhance the interior.
Bold Kuga ST-Line styling inspired by Ford Performance models includes body-coloured bumpers and side skirts; and a grille, front skid plate, rear diffuser and roof rails finished in black. A large rear spoiler, standard 18‑inch or optional 19-inch alloy wheels,3 and twin sports exhausts add to the sporty character. Inside a dark headliner, exclusive ST-Line seat designs with contrasting red stitching, alloy pedals, flat-bottomed steering wheel, and ST-Line floor mats and scuff plates reflect the performance personality.
“Kuga customers expressed that they were ready for even more emotional design, and our all-new Kuga is a sculpture skilfully articulated. Visually sleeker, lower and wider – it makes you feel excited just by looking at it,” said Amko Leenarts, director, Design, Ford of Europe. “The all-new interior is a sanctuary space, designed to allow everyday life to happen. Harmonious and airy, it fuses premium materials, precise craftsmanship and state-of-the-art technology.”
All-new Kuga is offered in 12 colours, including new metallic Diffused Silver and Sedona Orange. Blue Panther, a new finish offered exclusively on Vignale models, joins premium paint finishes triple coat Lucid Red and Star White pearl.
Unprecedented powertrain diversity
Ford is committed to offering an electrified version of every passenger vehicle it brings to market in Europe and will grow its range of electrified vehicles in Europe to 18 on sale before the end of 2021. The all-new Kuga is the first Ford vehicle to be offered with plug-in hybrid, mild hybrid and full hybrid powertrain technology.
Kuga Plug-In Hybrid: The all-new Kuga Plug-In Hybrid delivers the driving range and freedom offered by a traditional combustion engine alongside the efficiency and refinement of an electric powertrain.
The power-split architecture combines a 2.5-litre, four-cylinder Atkinson-cycle petrol engine, electric motor and generator, and 14.4 kWh lithium-ion battery to produce 225 PS. Kuga Plug-In Hybrid delivers a 72 km NEDC (56 km WLTP) pure-electric driving range, fuel efficiency from 1.2 l/100 km NEDC (from 1.4 l/100 km WLTP) and CO2 emissions from 26 g/km NEDC (from 32 g/km WLTP).
The battery can be charged using a front fender-mounted charging port, and is automatically replenished on the move using regenerative charging technology that captures kinetic energy normally lost during braking. To fully charge the battery from an external 230-volt electricity supply will take less than 6 hours.
Drivers can choose when and how to deploy battery power using EV Auto, EV Now, EV Later and EV Charge modes. When the battery reaches its lowest state-of-charge, the Kuga automatically reverts to EV Auto mode – supplementing petrol engine power with electric motor assistance using recaptured energy for optimised fuel efficiency.
Kuga EcoBlue Hybrid: The all-new Kuga EcoBlue Hybrid enhances Ford’s 150 PS 2.0‑litre EcoBlue diesel engine for even greater fuel efficiency. The mild hybrid technology employs a belt-driven integrated starter/generator (BISG) that replaces the standard alternator, enabling recovery and storage of energy during vehicle decelerations, and charging a 48-volt lithium-ion air-cooled battery pack. The BISG also acts as a motor, using the stored energy to provide electric torque assistance to the engine under normal driving and acceleration, as well as running the vehicle’s electrical ancillaries.
The 48-volt system also enables the all-new Kuga’s Auto Start-Stop technology to operate in more situations for additional fuel savings, contributing to fuel efficiency from 4.3 l/100 km NEDC (from 5.0 l/100 km WLTP) and CO2 emissions from 111 g/km NEDC (from 132 g/km WLTP).
Kuga Hybrid: Available to order later this year, the Kuga Hybrid uses a self-charging full hybrid powertrain that enables pure-electric driving capability and combines a 2.5-litre Atkinson cycle petrol engine; electric motor; generator; lithium-ion battery; and a Ford-developed power-split automatic transmission. The Kuga Hybrid will be available with front-wheel drive and Ford Intelligent All-Wheel Drive, delivering from an anticipated 5.6 l/100 km fuel efficiency and 130 g/km CO2 emissions.4
All-new Kuga customers can also choose from an advanced range of Ford EcoBoost petrol and Ford EcoBlue diesel engines with optimised power and refinement. Powertrains are supported by standard Auto Start-Stop for reduced running costs, and transmissions including a slick-shifting six-speed manual and new eight-speed automatic for effortless cruising.
Kuga EcoBlue: The 190 PS 2.0‑litre EcoBlue engine delivers fuel efficiency from 4.8 l/100 km NEDC (from 5.9 l/100 km WLTP) and CO2 emissions from 127 g/km NEDC (from 155 g/km WLTP). Fuel efficiency is enhanced using an integrated intake system with mirror-image porting for optimised engine breathing and low-inertia turbocharger. Standard selective catalytic reduction emissions after-treatment contributes to improved NOX reduction. Further 2.0‑litre EcoBlue innovations that reduce friction, include:
- A 10 mm offset crank design that minimises piston side-load, reducing rubbing forces against the cylinder walls
- Steel pistons for optimised dimensions and less expansion when hot
- Minimised crankshaft bearing diameters
- A belt-in-oil design for the camshaft and oil pump drive belts
Ford’s 1.5-litre EcoBlue engine is offered with 120 PS, delivers fuel efficiency from 4.2 l/100 km NEDC (from 5.1 l/100 km WLTP) and CO2 emissions from 109 g/km NEDC (from 133 g/km WLTP), and is supported by innovative technologies, including:
- Water-air charge cooling for more efficient combustion and reduced emissions
- An integrated intake manifold for optimised engine breathing
- Low-inertia turbocharging for faster, more controllable turbo response, featuring rocket engine materials designed for high temperature applications
- A high-pressure fuel injection system that is more responsive, quieter, and more precise
Kuga EcoBoost: The 1.5-litre EcoBoost engine is offered with 120 PS and 150 PS, delivering fuel efficiency from 5.5 l/100 km NEDC (from 6.6 l/100 km WLTP) and CO2 emissions from 125 g/km NEDC (from 150 g/km WLTP) supported by Ford’s industry-first cylinder deactivation system for a three-cylinder engine. The technology can automatically stop one of the engine’s cylinders when full capacity is not needed, such as when coasting or cruising with light demand on the engine. Cylinder deactivation can disengage or re-engage one cylinder in 14 milliseconds – faster than the blink of an eye – with no compromise in performance or refinement.
Core EcoBoost technologies including advanced turbocharging, high-pressure direct fuel injection and Twin-independent Variable Cam Timing, also feature. Particulate emissions are reduced using standard gas particulate filter technology. Further innovations include:
- A new combination of port fuel injection and direct fuel injection that helps achieve high power and responsiveness alongside enhanced fuel efficiency, with a particular increase in fuel efficiency under light engine loads
- A low-friction three-cylinder architecture that delivers naturally high torque at low rpm
- An integrated exhaust manifold that improves fuel efficiency by helping the engine reach optimal temperatures faster, and produces torque more rapidly by minimising the distance exhaust gasses travel between cylinders and turbocharger
- An all-aluminium construction for reduced weight
Ford’s new quick-shifting eight-speed automatic transmission is engineered to further optimise fuel efficiency and responsive performance. Available with 120 PS 1.5-litre EcoBlue and 190 PS 2.0-litre EcoBlue engines, the gearbox features:
- Adaptive Shift Scheduling, which assesses individual driving styles to optimise gearshift timings. The system can identify uphill and downhill gradients and hard cornering, and adjust gearshifts accordingly for a more stable, engaging and refined driving experience
- Adaptive Shift Quality Control, which assesses vehicle and environmental information to help adjust clutch pressures for consistently smooth gearshifts. The technology can also adjust shift smoothness to suit driving style
“One size does not fit all, so we’ve developed a nuanced powertrain strategy for the all-new Kuga that will help customers find the right solution for their lifestyle, and also support SUV drivers by making the transition to an electrified lifestyle easy and enjoyable,” said Joerg Beyer, executive director, Engineering, Ford of Europe. “Kuga is the first Ford vehicle to benefit from the full range of sophisticated Ford Hybrid powertrain solutions.”
Kuga also offers for the first time selectable Drive Mode technology that enables drivers to adjust throttle response, steering weight and traction control, plus gearshift timings for automatic models, to match responses and performance to the driving scenarios.
Alongside Normal, Sport and Eco modes, Slippery mode offers drivers increased confidence on surfaces with reduced grip such as snow and ice. Deep Snow/Sand mode helps maintain vehicle momentum on soft, deformable surfaces.
The all-new Kuga makes it easier than ever to tow anything from to small trailers to large caravans using two innovative towing solutions, and towing capacity up to 2,100 kg depending on powertrain configuration. An electrically operated retractable tow bar can be controlled using a conveniently located button in the boot space. Push the button once and the ball neck travels out from its stowage position under the vehicle. With another push of the button it automatically disappears back underneath the car. In addition, a detachable tow bar also is available and can be easily locked into place. When not in use the ball neck is stored in the boot.
Enhanced comfort and ownership experiences
Comfort, spaciousness, flexibility and connectivity are key to the more rewarding Kuga occupant experience. The all-new Kuga is 44 mm wider and 89 mm longer than the outgoing model, while the wheelbase has increased by 20 mm. Inside, that translates to increases in shoulder room, hip room and headroom for front and rear seat passengers, despite an overall height that is 6 mm lower than the outgoing model.
For rear seat passengers, heated outer seats are available for the first time, and the entire second row of seats can be moved backwards for best-in-class 1,035 mm rear legroom, or forwards to increase boot space to best-in-class 645 litres. A remote release function enables the second row to be folded flat with ease.
The boot also has a reversible luggage compartment mat with a high-quality velour on one side for a high-quality look and feel, and a durable and robust rubber surface on the other side to prevent wet or muddy sports equipment from soiling the interior.
The all-new Kuga interior introduces innovative engineering and advanced comfort and convenience technologies that help the vehicle seamlessly integrate into customers’ lives.
For the first time, Kuga is offered with FordPass Connect modem technology that allows customers to remotely control a selection of vehicle features from any location with a mobile data signal. In addition to helping drivers plan faster, less stressful journeys with Live Traffic updates for the navigation system, FordPass Connect allows a range of features for a more convenient ownership experience via the FordPass mobile app,5 including:
- Door Lock Unlock, to remotely allow access to your Kuga
- Remote Start, for Kuga models with eight-speed automatic transmission,6 enabling customers to defrost the windscreen or cool down the temperature of their Kuga before starting their journey
- Vehicle Locator, helping owners find their car in sprawling shopping mall car parks
- Vehicle Status, for checking fuel and battery charge levels, alarm status, tyre pressures, oil life and more
- The FordPass app also delivers new features to make the electrified vehicle ownership experience even more rewarding for Kuga Plug-In Hybrid customers, including:
- Charge level, for monitoring battery level status and electric driving range
- Charging station finder, helping customers effortlessly locate and navigate to more than 125,000 Charging Network locations in 21 countries, with information including plug type and public or restricted access status
- Features designed to help drivers to get the most out of their charging by pre-setting charge times for their vehicle to best utilise electricity tariffs, set their desired charge levels and be notified of any charge levels reached
- Trip and charge logs, helping customers monitor and review their vehicle energy and fuel usage including energy used, pure-electric distance travelled and regenerative braking activity
Also helping drivers stay connected on the move and wave goodbye to a tangle of cables in the centre console, a new wireless charging pad beneath the instrument panel enables occupants to easily charge compatible smartphones. The pad automatically detects compatible devices to initiate charging.
Devices can remain connected via Bluetooth to Ford’s SYNC 3 communications and entertainment system while using wireless charging, which is supported by an 8-inch central touchscreen that can be operated using pinch and swipe gestures. SYNC 3 allows drivers to control audio, navigation and climate functions plus connected smartphones1 using simple voice commands. Apple CarPlay and Android Auto™ compatibility is included free-of-charge.
A new 12.3-inch LCD instrument cluster is the first in the industry to use free-form technology that allows curved upper edges for seamless interior design. The free-form panel features circuitry embedded across the display, enabling designers to mould it into shapes beyond the traditional rectangular design.
In addition, the 24‑bit “true colour” digital instrument cluster generates detailed, high definition, more intuitive images and icons displayed in the full colour spectrum, making them brighter, less tiring on the eyes and easier to read.
A new B&O Sound System will help occupants get the best from their audio. The powerful 575‑watt, 10-speaker system features an external coupled subwoofer for smooth bass production, while the position of the tweeters in the dashboard has been optimised to produce a wider sound stage at seating level for an enveloping listening experience for all occupants. Comprehensive static and dynamic sound tuning ensures that the listening experience is maintained regardless of the driving conditions.
Ford’s hands-free tailgate technology allows access to the boot space even with arms full of groceries, kids or sports equipment, using a simple kicking motion under the rear bumper. Ford engineers have also delivered a solution to the challenge of where to place the cargo shade once removed: it now fits neatly beneath the new flexible load floor, and is easier to remove with a simple pull-strap release.
Enhancing interior refinement, Active Noise Control employs three microphones, strategically placed throughout the cabin, to monitor engine noise in the interior. The system then directs opposing sound waves through the audio system to cancel out unwanted engine and transmission noises. Standard for Kuga Plug-In Hybrid Vignale, Kuga EcoBlue Hybrid and Kuga 2.0-litre EcoBlue Vignale models, the technology contributes to a new level of interior quietness.
The all-new Kuga further enhances the SUV driving experience with an advanced suite of driver assistance technologies designed to give drivers confidence behind the wheel and help them to stay focused while on the move.
Making its Ford debut as part of the advanced Lane-Keeping System, BLIS Assist combines Ford’s Blind Spot Information System (BLIS) and Lane-Keeping Aid to monitor the driver’s blind spot for vehicles approaching from behind while travelling on multi-lane carriageways. If a driver either signals a lane change or the control system senses a lane change when a vehicle is approaching in the blind spot that could lead to a potential collision, counter-steering is applied to warn the driver and discourage the lane change manoeuvre.
New Local Hazard Information technology5 – enabled by FordPass Connect – can inform drivers of a hazardous situation on the road ahead, even if the incident is not visible due to a bend in the road or other vehicles. Notifications are delivered independent of sat-nav and are sourced from local authorities, emergency services, and driving data from other vehicles connected to “the cloud”.
Notifications of hazards including road works; broken down vehicles; animals, pedestrians and objects in the carriageway; and even hazardous driving conditions are delivered to the vehicle over-the-air.
Kuga for the first time enhances Ford’s Pre-Collision Assist with Active Braking technology with a new Intersection functionality, which can automatically apply the brakes to avoid or mitigate the effects of accidents if the driver is turning across the path of oncoming traffic and the system determines an imminent collision. Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection technology alerts drivers to people in the road ahead who could cross the vehicle’s path. The features are designed to reduce the severity of some frontal collisions involving vehicles and pedestrians, or help drivers avoid some impacts altogether.
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) with Stop & Go, Speed Sign Recognition and Lane Centring helps the vehicle maintain a comfortable driving distance from vehicles ahead. The system also helps reduce stress during long road trips by keeping the vehicle centred in its lane, and can adjust the vehicle speed to within legal limits by monitoring the roadside and overhead gantries for speed signs. This is in addition to using information from the on-board navigation system.
Stop & Go – available with the eight-speed automatic transmission – enables the ACC system to bring the vehicle to a complete halt in stop-start traffic using up to 50 per cent of total braking force, and automatically pull away if the stopping duration is less than 3 seconds. For stopping durations greater than 3 seconds, the driver can push a steering wheel button or gently apply the accelerator to pull away.
Lane Centring technology monitors road markings and can apply gentle but discernible torque to the steering system to help drivers stay centred in their lane whenever the ACC system is activated. Designed to support drivers at speeds up to 200 km/h (125 mph), the technology will deliver visual and audible warnings if it detects a lack of steering wheel input from the driver.
Kuga is the first Ford SUV in Europe to offer a head-up display (HUD), which helps drivers keep their eyes on the road by projecting useful information into their field of vision. The system maximises effectiveness with one of the largest fields of view of any HUD available in Europe, measuring 6 degrees by 2.5 degrees.
Special filters for the retractable polycarbonate screen mean that it can be read by users wearing polarised lenses. Depending on vehicle specification, the configurable selection of projected information includes speed – the only content that is always present; Traffic Sign Recognition; ACC; navigation; Shift Indicator; entertainment system; and emergency notifications.
Cross Traffic Alert warns drivers reversing out of a parking space of vehicles that may soon be crossing behind them, while front and rear wide-view cameras, offer a 180-degree view to the front and rear of the vehicle for improved visibility when reversing or pulling out of parking spaces or driveways.
Active Park Assist 2 makes parking even easier: delivering fully-automated manoeuvres into and out of parallel and perpendicular parking spaces at the push of a button. Enabled by the shift-by-wire capability of the new eight-speed automatic gearbox, the system identifies suitable parking spaces and the driver can control vehicle motion by simply selecting neutral and holding down a single centre console-mounted button.
The vehicle then fully controls forward and reverse gear selection, throttle and braking, as well as steering – manoeuvring into spaces just 92 centimetres longer than the vehicle and on gradients up to 12 per cent at speeds of up to 4 km/h (2.5 mph), before engaging park. The technology can also help driver exit parallel parking spaces using fully automated Park-out Assist.
5-star safety rating
The all-new Ford Kuga2 SUV has been awarded the highest-possible 5-star safety rating by the Euro NCAP independent crash test authority, scoring 92 per cent for adult protection and receiving full points in both the side barrier and the more severe side pole impact tests.
Kuga’s structure utilises high-strength steel throughout the skeleton and intelligent designs to improve impact protection, including ultra-high-strength 3D-rolled steel tubes incorporated into each A-pillar and along the rooflines.
Additional technologies designed to help Kuga drivers avoid accidents include:
- Evasive Steering Assist, designed to operate at city and motorway speeds, which uses radar and a camera to detect slower-moving and stationary vehicles ahead and provides steering support to enable drivers to manoeuvre around a vehicle if a collision is imminent
- Wrong Way Alert, which uses a windscreen mounted camera and information from the car’s navigation system to provide drivers with audible and visual warnings when driving through two “No Entry” signs on a motorway ramp
Advanced lighting technologies include Ford’s Adaptive Front Lighting System with predictive curve light and sign-based light, which pre-adjusts headlamp patterns for maximum visibility before reaching a curve, junction or roundabout.
The system uses the forward-facing camera to monitor lane markings up to 65 metres ahead, enabling light from the headlamps to be angled into the corner pre-emptively for improved visibility on approach, rather than relying solely on the driver’s steering wheel inputs. The Ford-patented integration of road sign-reading capability to optimise beam patterns enables the beam to be widened at junctions and roundabouts to better illuminate hazards that are not in the direction of travel.
Glare-Free High Beam can prevent drivers accidentally dazzling others and helps users see more of the road ahead at night with headlamps that use an innovative adjustable drum configuration for greater flexibility and softer, less distracting transitions.
Should an accident occur, new Post-Collision Braking technology helps to reduce the impact of a potential secondary collision by automatically applying moderate brake pressure when an initial collision event is detected; slowing the vehicle can potentially lessen injury to occupants and further damage to the vehicle.
“We don’t believe in technology for technology’s sake,” Rowley said. “Features like our FordPass Connect modem and new Lane-Keeping System with BLIS Assist – combined with our new Ford Hybrid range of powertrains solutions – are designed to reflect the ever-evolving ways that we use our cars, and to help the all-new Kuga slip seamlessly into our customers lives.”
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1 Don’t drive while distracted. Use voice-operated systems when possible; don’t use handheld devices while driving. Some features may be locked out while the vehicle is in gear. Not all features are compatible with all phones
2 Euro NCAP 5-star rating applicable for Kuga 2.0-litre EcoBlue diesel, 1.5-litre EcoBlue diesel and 1.5‑litre EcoBoost petrol
3 20-inch alloy wheel options may also be offered in selected markets
4 Officially homologated fuel/energy efficiency and CO2 emission figures will be published closer to on-sale date
5 Features may require activation
6 In regions where permitted by law
Driver-assist features are supplemental to and do not replace the driver’s attention, judgement and need to control the vehicle.
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BANG & OLUFSEN™ and B&O™ are registered trademarks of Bang & Olufsen Group. Licensed by Harman Becker Automotive Systems Manufacturing Kft. All rights reserved.
The declared fuel/energy consumptions, CO2-emissions and electric range are determined according to the technical requirements and specifications of the European Regulations (EC) 715/2007 and (EU) 2017/1151 as last amended. Light Duty Vehicle type-approved using the World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) will have fuel/energy consumption and CO2-emission information for New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and WLTP. WLTP will fully replace the NEDC latest by the end of the year 2020. The applied standard test procedures enable comparison between different vehicle types and different manufacturers. During NEDC phase-out, WLTP fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are being correlated back to NEDC. There will be some variance to the previous fuel economy and emissions as some elements of the tests have altered, so the same car might have different fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.